ABOUT GATE Biotechnology (BT)

Tentative date of exam notification:  august/ sep

Tentative date of filling forms : sep/ oct

Tentative date of exam : I/II week of Feb, once in a year

Pattern of GATE BT

The question paper of GATE BT includes two types of questions – Multiple type questions (MCQs) and Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Question

  • The question paper will have three parts: General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, Subject-specific section
  • There will be a total of 65 questions and exam duration is 3 hours
  • Marking scheme: General Aptitude – 15 Marks, Engineering Mathematics – 15 Marks, Biotech Subject – 70 Marks
  • Negative marking: Only MCQs have negative marking 1/3 for 1 mark MCQ, 2/3 for 2 mark MCQ, NO NEGATIVE MARKING for NAT  Question

Syllabus of GATE BT

1. Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

  1. Calculus:Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
  1. Differential Equations:Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.
  1. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.
  1. Numerical Methods:Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.
  1. Microbiology:Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.
  1. Biochemistry:Biomolecules and their conformation; Ramachandran map; Weak inter-molecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction; Biochemical and biophysical techniques for macromolecular analysis.
  1. Molecular Biology and Genetics:Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosuplementsomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.
  1. Process Biotechnology:Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.
  1. Bioprocess Engineering:Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.
  1. Plant and Animal Biotechnology:Special features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.
  1. Characteristics of animal cells:Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.
  1. Immunology:The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
  1. Recombinant DNA Technology:Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.
  1. Bioinformatics:Major bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force fields).

Eligibility for GATE BT

B.E./B.Tech./ M.Sc. completed or final 7th/8th semester

No Age limit

GATE qualifying cutoff vs Admission Cutoff

Particulars GATE Qualifying Cutoff Admission Cutoff published by institutes based on GATE Scores
Published by An organising IIT. The qualifying GATE 2019 cutoff will be published by IIT Madras By institutes individually.
Parameters for deciding cutoff – Performance of the candidate in the entrance examination

-Category of the candidates

-Previous cutoff trends

– Applications received for admission

– Availability of seats

– Category of the candidate (especially in public and semi-public institutes)

-Reputation of the institute

Used for admission/counselling No Yes
Is subject-specific Yes Yes
Availability of GATE score card Is issued only to candidates who qualify in the entrance exam Has noting to do with GATE score card

GATE Qualifying marks in last years

 GATE Qualifying Cutoff 2018 (Official)

S. No Paper Name Paper Code Qualifying Marks
General OBC (NCL) SC/ST/PwD
1 Biotechnology BT 27.9 25.1 18.5
2 Life Sciences XL 29.9 26.9 19.9
  Year No. of candidates appeared General OBC SC/ ST/ PWD
GATE BT 2016 11,161 26.08 23.47 17.39
GATE BT 2015 10,719 26.08 23.47 17.39
GATE BT 2014 10,719 25.84 23.26 17.23
GATE BT 2013 16,159 38.77 37.89 25.85

Tips & tricks to crack GATE BT

  • Start preparing for exam at least 4 months before the date of GATE BT
  • Keep Solving and analyzingIt is   advisable that you solve full length mock test papers and Go through all previous years papers of GATE BT  to have an understanding what to prepare for GATE BT . It will develop an understanding in you about your performance in actual GATE BT  exam where you exactly stand GATE BT. Students must try to solve the test in iguruji online app downloadable from google playstore and make yourself adaptable to GATE BT .  
  • Refer the good text books for Clearing the conceptsStudents must clear their concepts with the help of good books and updated study material like AADHAR INSTITUTE STUDY MATERIAL FOR GATE BT so as not to face hurdles during the exam. The questions in GATE BT are designed to bring out your understanding and basic knowledge of biotechnology. Try to be more concise and precise over concepts and basic knowledge rather than running on path of blind learning and going through everything. Topics which sum up to assumptions and calculations must not be avoided as they bring you a sure mark especially biochemistry, molecular biology bioprocess engineering,  biostatistics etc.
  • Know Yourself:
  1. If you are from B-tech (Biotech) background , give a special Preparation to theoretical parts of genetics cell biology, plant biotech biochemistry because in these areas you will be getting a strong tug from M.Sc. Biotech Students
  2. If you are from M.Sc. Biotech background, given extra efforts for bioprocess, process biotech, mathematics portion because these areas are usually not very well prepared in your cases especially if you were NOT having mathematics as a core subjects at senior secondary level and graduation level
  3. Both M.Sc. biotech and B-tech biotech students must practice numerical portion of your syllabus because this will always be a game changer in scoring high
  4. Prepare the 11th, 12th level chemistry well so that you will have advantage in your written test (online) as well as at the time of interview, although no direct chemistry question is asked in GATE BT
  5. Get reliable coaching :- Best way to prepare GATE BT is to join classroom coaching for GATE BT at aadhar institute or video course on our app “iguruji” that include all these stuff under one roof.
  6. You can join short course for numerical in Biology even on iguruji .
  7. must give special attention to aptitude section because these marks are added into final score
  • Make a schedule for Revision and tests –The regular revision matters a lot more than any other things during the preparation time. Watch iguruji video for making strategy and schedule for GATE BT you must revise all the topics which you have studied during this entire course of preparation. At many points you will find that remembering all the things simultaneously becomes hard; make short key words based notes and map notes to quickly revise all points.  Keep on appearing for video supported tests for GATE BT on iguruji app
  •  Say NO to New topic during exam days-Student must not study any new topic in the last weeks. It would bring unnecessary anxiety and can disturb your overall preparation. You should instead keep on honing the previously practiced topics and solve mock test papers. Studying more or all is not required if you have not studied it previously, but regular revision of the topics what you have studied is the key to success.
  •  Make notes for formulas and important concepts-All the important experimental questions, concepts,  constants must be written separately in a short note so as to keep them revising on one  go this will help you in NAT type questions.  Keep on going through special revision and superfast revision videos of iguruji
  • Add exercise/yoga, meditation and Power Nap in the day Schedule  
  1. As you must have heard – healthy mind lives in healthy body but Being a biology student you must also understand the reverse is also true “only a healthy mind can have a healthy body.” Just maintain the calmness of your brain by taking small breaks from studies – for basic PRANAYAM, MEDITATION and YOGA (many videos are available on you tube)
  2. During the preparation days Avoid late night food just respect the circadian Rhythm of the body “sleep at night work in day”
  3. During the day hours take at least two short power nap after every 5 – 6 hours of study
  4. Avoid Alcohol / cigarette / excessive caffeine consumption for getting boost

 Ask the expert-

  • You must take help from those genuine friends who have qualified the exam in past. Keep on watching “tips for GATE BT ” video on aadharinstitute jaipur youtube channel
  • You can have even live discussion on this channel tune to time
  • Develop a positive attitude in life especially for this exam. Never think that this exam is the last hope in Life. Don’t worry you have a brighter life ahead this is just a milestone

Avoid travelling at the night just before exam especially if your centre in another city just reach one day before the exam  take rest and proper sleep