TEST Syllabus – Biotechnology (BT)
The Biotechnology (BT) test paper comprises of Biology (44% weightage), Chemistry (20% weightage), Mathematics (18% weightage) and Physics (18% weightage).
BIOLOGY (10+2+3 level)
Test unit 1 General Biology: Taxonomy; Heredity; Genetic variation;
Test unit 2 Conservation; Principles of ecology;
Test unit 3 Biochemistry: Carbohydrates; Proteins; Lipids; Nucleic acids; Enzymes; Vitamins; Hormones;
Test unit 4 plant and animal Physiology Metabolism – Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Oxidative Phosphoryation;Photosynthesis. Nitrogen Fixation, Fertilization and Osmoregulation; Vertebrates-Nervous system; Endocrine system; Vascular system; Immune system; Digestive system and Reproductive System.
Test unit 5 Basic Biotechnology and RDT: Tissue culture; Application of enzymes; Diagnostic aids.Techniques in modern biology.
Test unit 6 Molecular Biology: DNA; RNA; Replication; Transcription; Translation; Proteins; Operon model; Gene transfer.
Test unit 7 Cell Biology: Lipids and Membranes, Mitochondria; Endoplasmic reticulum; Chloroplast; Golgi apparatus; Signaling.Cell cycle; Cytoskeletal elements;
Test unit 8 Microbiology: Isolation; Cultivation; Structural features of virus; Bacteria; Fungi; Protozoa; Pathogenic micro-organizms.
Test unit 9 Immunology Antigen-antibody interaction; Antibody production
Test unit 10 Evolution;
CHEMISTRY (10+2+3 level)
Test unit 1 Atomic Structure: Bohr’s theory and Schrodinger wave equation; Periodicity in properties; Chemical bonding;
Test unit 2 Properties of s, p, d and f block elements; Complex formation; Coordination compounds;
Test unit 3 Instrumental techniques – chromatography (TLC, HPLC), electrophoresis, UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry.
Test unit 4 Chemical equilibria; Chemical thermodynamics (first and second law); Chemical kinetics (zero, first, second and third order reactions); Photochemistry; Electrochemistry; Acid-base concepts;
Test unit 5 Stereochemistry of carbon compounds; Inductive, electromeric, conjugative effects and resonance; Chemistry of Functional Groups: Hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines and their derivatives; Aromatic hydrocarbons, halides, nitro and amino compounds, phenols, diazonium salts, carboxylic and sulphonic acids; Mechanism of organic reactions; Soaps and detergents; Synthetic polymers; Biomolecules – amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates (polysaccharides);
MATHEMATICS (10+2 level)
Test unit 1 Sets, Relations and Functions, Mathematical Induction, Logarithms, Complex numbers,
Test unit 2 Linear and Quadratic equations, Sequences and Series,
Test unit 3 Trigonometry, Cartesian System of Rectangular Coordinates, Straight lines and Family, Circles, Conic Sections,
Test unit 4 Permutations and Combinations, Binomial Theorem, Exponential and Logarithmic Series, Mathematical Logic, Statistics, Three Dimensional Geometry, Vectors, Matrices and Determinants, Boolean Algebra, Probability,
Test unit 5 Functions, limits and Continuity, Differentiation, Application of Derivatives, Definite and Indefinite Integrals, Differential Equations.
PHYSICS (10+2 level)
Test unit 1 Physical World and Measurement, Elementary Statics and Dynamics, Kinematics, Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and Power, Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body, Gravitation,
Test unit 2 Mechanics of Solids and Fluids, Heat and Thermodynamics,Oscillations, Waves. Optics
Test unit 3 Electrostatics, Current electricity
Test unit 4 Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current, Electromagnetic waves,
Test unit 5 Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations, Atomic Nucleus, Solids and Semiconductor Devices, Principles of Communication,
TEST SYLLABUS FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (BL)
TEST UNIT:1. BIOCHEMISTRY
- Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds.
- omposition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins).
- Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.).
- Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties).
- Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers.
- Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes
- Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motif and folds). Stability of proteins
- Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids nucleotides and vitamins.
- BIOPHYSICAL METHOD:
- RADIOLABELING TECHNIQUES:
TEST UNIT:2. CELL BIOLOGY
- Membrane structure and function (
- Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles
- Cell division and cell cycle
- Cell signaling
- Cellular communication .
- Microscopic techniques:
TEST UNIT: 3. MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
- Organisms of health & agricultural importance:
Microbial Physiology (Growth yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response)
Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry
Classes of microorganizms and their characterization, nutrient requirement for growth; laboratory techniques in microbiology, pathogenic microorganizms and disease; applied microbiology; viruses, Microbial genetics.
- Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.
- Histochemical and Immunotechniques
TEST UNIT: 4. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
- Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A, B, Z), t-RNA, micro-RNA). Stability of nucleic acids.
- DNA replication, repair and recombination
- Operon, tructure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons).
- RNA synthesis and processing
- Protein synthesis and processing
- Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level
Recombinant DNA methods:
- Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods. Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels.
- Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems.
- Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors.
- In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.
- DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing.
- Isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules
- RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques
Genetic engineering and applied biology:
- Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules.
- Application of immunological principles, vaccines, diagnostics. Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals.
- Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.
- Genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene therapy.
- Bioresource and uses of biodiversity.
- Breeding in plants and animals, including marker – assisted selection
- Bioremediation and phytoremediation
TEST UNIT:5 GENTICS
- Mendelian principles :
- Concept of gene :
- Extensions of Mendelian principles :
- Gene mapping methods :
- Extra chromosomal inheritance :
- Microbial genetics :
- Human genetics :
- Quantitative genetics :
- Mutation :
- Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes :
- Recombination :
TEST UNIT:6 Plant sciences and plant physiology
- Photosynthesis –
- Respiration and photorespiration – .
- Nitrogen metabolism – .
- Plant hormones –
- Sensory photobiology – .
- Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation –
- Secondary metabolites –
- Stress physiology –
- Outline classification of plants Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of plants, .
- Developmental biology embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.
TEST UNIT: 7. ANIMAL SCIENCES AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
- Blood and circulation and Cardiovascular System:
- Digestive system & Respiratory system –
- Nervous system and Sense organs –
- Excretory system and Thermoregulation –
- Endocrinology and reproduction –
- Taxonomy Comparative anatomy, adaptive radiation, adaptive modifications. Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of animals Evolutionary relationships among taxa.
- Electrophysiological methods:
Single neuron recording, patch-clamp recording, ECG, Brain activity recording, lesion and stimulation of brain, pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CAT
- Basic concepts of development : Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development
- Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals;zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals;
TEST UNIT: 8 ECOLOGY
- The Environment:
- Habitat and Niche:
- Population Ecology:
- Species Interactions:
- Community Ecology:
- Ecological Succession: .
- Ecosystem Ecology:
- Applied Ecology:
- Conservation Biology:
- Natural history of Indian subcontinent:
- Organisms of health & agricultural importance: Organisms of conservation concern:
TEST UNIT:9 EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR
- Emergence of evolutionary thoughts
- Origin of cells and unicellular evolution:
- Paleontology and Evolutionary History:
- Molecular Evolution:
- Population genetics – .
- Brain, Behavior and Evolution:
Mathematical functions (algebraic, exponential, trigonometric), their derivatives (derivatives and integrals of simple functions), permutations and combinations.
Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson and normal); Sampling distribution; Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics; Confidence Interval; Errors; Levels of significance; Regression and Correlation; t-test; Analysis of variance; X2 test;; Basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics, etc.